Go Navy

Final Informative Speech

Kashetah Bedford

Public Speaking

Informative Speech Outline

Underage Drinking

General Purpose: To inform

Specific Purpose: To inform the audience about the underlying issues of underage drinking.

Central Idea: After hearing this speech the audience will walk away knowing that there are many reasons why children choose to drink alcohol, and why we as a community can combat the problem.

[Slide 1] Introduction

1. Question for the Audience:

How many of your remember your first sip of alcohol?

2.  International statistics

Per the World Health Organization the average drinking age is 18 and in the United States it is 21.  The enforcement of drinking age varies between countries and even within the country. Here is a great example.

[Slide 2] U.S. Map

Why is there such a disparity between the communities of the world with regard to the drinking age? And why is underage drinking considered a problem in the United States?

3.  Why is alcohol considered a problem in the United States?  Let’s take a look at the Colonial period where American’s drank 3 to 4 time as much alcohol compare to now.

Harvard University even had its own brewery.

Puritan leaders view of drunkenness.

Excessive drinking viewed as a lack of will or mental illness.

4.  The 1920s and Prohibition

[Slide 3] Bar Chart


Perental responsibility

5.  In 2013, an American blogger published her an article titled, “Can You Guess Where in the World People Are Binge Drinking The Most?”

6.  Conclusion

Primary Sources:

Maryland Underage Drinking Prevention Coalition. Laws: Minimum Drinking Age Laws. mudpc.org/laws.html_

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Underage Drinking and Access to Alcohol Consumption. National Institute on alcohol and Alcohol Abuse’s Alcohol Policy Information System website.

Clark Warburton, The Economic Results of Prohibition (New York: Columbia University Press, 1932), pp. 23-26, 72





Speech 5: Persuasive

April 14, 2014

Kashetah Bedford

Intro into Public Speaking

Topic: The effect of mandatory tipping requirement on the service industry.

Audience: The intended audience is service industry leaders and consumers.

Title of Speech: Gratuity, a Bonus or Standard?

Specific Purpose of Speech: To persuade service industry leaders and consumers use the gratuity system as a reward for outstanding service not, as means to sublimit pay.


A little over a year ago, there was a tipping story that made headline news. After serving a table of 20 at Applebee’s the waitress presented the diners with the check. When she got it back the diner wrote above his signature that he was a pastor, and also wrote the words: “I give God 10%, why do you get 18?”

View Slide 1*

Need step

Did you know, tips in the United States totals around $40 billion a year. Chain restaurants like Ihop pay their wait staff under minimum wage; because the logical is that they will make it up in tips. Jamie Martin, a former Ihop explained to me that she made $2.20 an hour. Each evening her tips were recorded. The tips earned were tallied into her paycheck and they how the company can justify paying its employees under minimum wage.


So where does tipping come from? Some say the word tip was first used in English bars and dining halls in the 18th Century. They would place a brass urns labeled with the phrase “To Insure Promptitude”.

By the 1900s some restaurant servers expected tips. In fact, on JBune 22, 1918, close to one hundred waiters were taken into custody for poisoning clients who did not tip enough in Chicago.

In countless bookstore and websites you can find publications and extensive charts developed by self-proclaimed tipping experts to ensure the consumer’s “tips appropriately”.

*View Slide 2*

Tim Urban of the site waitbutwhy.com wanted to take the confusion out of tipping developed this chart.

*View Slide 3*

This is an example of automatic gratuity.

Transition So how do we fix this problem?

The website Seriouseats.com reported on a New York Times story on Phoebe Damrosch, the author of Service Included: Four-Star Secrets of an Eavesdropping Waiter.

Under our current system, servers work for tips and not their wages or customer satisfaction.

In New York, there is a growing list of restaurants do not take tips. Customers don’t have to fret over how much to add to the bill, because the waiters won’t accept tips.

Personal experienceMy family lived in Japan for 3 years and I cannot tell you how wonderful of an experience it was to dine a local restaurant, receive 5 star serve and not have worry about leaving a proper tip. They will not accept it. If fact, if you attempt to leave money on the table, the server will return it and if they means chasing you down the street then so be it.

According to columnist Alice Robb, defenders of tipping, argue that it give waiters an incentive to provide good service. But over the years, research has shown that what customers actually reward often does not have much to do with the service.


So what are your thoughts? Should gratuity be a bonus or standard practice? If you still feel it should be standard practice consider this… how often have you gone out for dinner and felt the service was amazing, but the food was subpar?



Persuasive Speech

March 22, 2014

Kashetah Bedford

Public Speaking

Persuasive Speech Outline

Topic:    Mysteries of the Bible

General Purpose:     To Persuade

Specific Purpose:    To inform my audience about the mystery surrounding certain stories of the Bible.


  1. Attention Getter: While watching Ancient Alien’s on the History Channel, the topic for this particular evening was the prophet Ezekiel and his detailed description of what he saw in chapter 1.
  2. Reason to Listen:  In the book Chariots of the Gods, it’s author, a devoted Catholic questioned felt Ezekiel’s account of what he saw was too much outrageous to be heavenly. This was proven by a NASA engineer.

The Book

  1. How did Blumrich learn about it
  2. Chapter 4

Transition:  Chariot’s of the Gods was the talk of the town.

  1. Blumrich’s interpretation of the book
  2. Initial reaction
  3. Follow up
  4. What does the Bible say?

Conclusion: Blumrich develops a model of the craft based on the verses on Ezekiel. Picture is shown


Chariot’s of the Gods: Unsolved Mysteries of the Past. 1970, Erich von Daniken Translated by Michael Heron




“The Evidence.” Ancient Aliens. History Channel. 2010


Speech #3 Informative

March 9, 2014

Kashetah Bedford

Public Speaking

Informative Outline

Topic:               The Ancient Astronaut Theory

General Purpose:     To Inform

Specific Purpose:    To inform my audience about the mystery and questions behind the ideal ancient astronauts theory and examples to support idea..

Thesis:        Scientists and theorist point out reason as to why extraterrestrials could have had a large influence on our ancient cultures, architecture, and shaping of mankinds.

I.   Introduction

  1. Attention Getter:  The ancient astronaut theory is the idea that aliens visited earth in the distant past and gave primitive man the knowledge tools required to create structures and mathematics
  2. Reason to Listen:  Consider this, for 2,000 million years our ancestors lived in caves.  They spent their time hunting and gathering foods and materials needed for survival, but what changed?  Out of nowhere, they began building huge monuments and no one knows why.  It is truly the biggest mystery today.

II.  The Great Pyramid of Giza

  1. Construction
  2. Celestial Alignment

Transition:  Now that I have discussed the pyramids, I will now talk about Baghdad battery

III. Baghdad Battery

  1. Origin
  2. Capabilities

Conclusion:  The Ancient Astronaut Theory is just that, a theory… a series of questions to keep us talking about and thinking of the stars.


The Great Pyramid: A Miracle in Stone, 1973, Joseph A. Seiss

Jaromir Malék, The Old Kingdom (c.2686-2160 B.C.E) in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. Ian Shaw), Oxford University Press, 2000. p.94




Gascoigne, Bamber. HistoryWorld. From 2001, ongoing. http://www.historyworld.net


Salsa Demo – Assignment #2

Kashetah Bedford

Professor Shiebler

Public Speaking

14 February 2014

Salsa Roja Demonstration

General Purpose:  Demonstration

Specific Purpose:  To demonstration how to prepare Salsa Roja.

Central Idea:  Present a brief introduction.  To show how easy it is to prepare salsa at home.


  1. The first step is to gather all of your ingredients.
    1. Only a few ingredients are required to prepare this recipe.
    2. 3 cloves of garlic.
    3. Cleaned cilantro leaves.
    4. One-fourth of a white onion.
    5. 30 dried Japanese chili pods
    6. 4 or 5 medium sized fresh tomatoes
  1. Prepare tomatoes.
    1. Core the middle and score the top and bottom of each tomato
    2. Place tomato and peppers in medium saucepan.
    3. Cover with water.
    4. Boil until you see the skin loosen from tomato flash.
  1. Prepare to Blend.
    1. Remove the skin from each tomato and place in blender.
    2. Add cooked peppers to blender.
    3. Add garlic, cilantro, and onion to blender.
    4. Add 3 pinches of salt to blender.
    5. Turn on machine and blending to your desired consistency.
    6. Use the back of a spoon to check thickness.
  1. Time to serve.
    1. Pour prepared salsa into a bowl.
    2. Serve with your favor chip or favorite dish.


  1.  Taste the dish and provide positive feedback for the view.
  2. Closing Statement.


Guterriez-Uribe, Natividad.  Personal interview.  31 Jul. 2009.

De La Garza, Martha.  “Salsa Roja.” Recipe. Personal collection.   25 May 2010.


Self Introduction Speech Outline

Date: February 1, 2014


Name: Kashetah Bedford                        Topic:  Self-Introduction

Specific Purpose:  Initial class introduction utilizing an object that best describes me.

Central Idea:  The purpose of this short speech is to introduce myself to the class and present an object that best relates to my personality.


This speech will provide the listener with information about my personal life and the life of my immediate family.  In addition, I will speak briefly about my life prior to enlisting in the U.S. Navy.


Topic sentence I:  Hello Everyone!  My name is Kashetah Bedford.  This is my first public speaking class and I am very excited to share this experience with you all.

A. Our first assignment.

1. My favorite Starbucks cup.

2.  It is fun and convenience and that’s what I am about.

Topic sentence II:  So about me.  I enlisted in to the Navy 16 years ago.

A. My hometown.

1. In the Navy for 16 years.

2. Why did I enlist in the Navy

Topic Sentence III:  Life in a small town is exact what you assume it would be… slow, inconvenient, uneventful.

A.  Inconveniences and desire.

1. Nearest shopping mall was an hour drive away.

2. Immediate benefit of enlistment

Topic Sentence III:  Currently, my family and i live in San Diego and it such a beautiful city.

A. Why we enjoy the area.

1. Family status.

2. Things we do to relax

Conclusion:  Thank you for viewing my presentation.